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Colors And Materials

Source:

    Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials. The following table shows the available colors with wavelength range, voltage drop, and material:


ColorWavelength [nm]Voltage drop [ΔV]Semiconductor material

Infraredλ > 760ΔV < 1.63Gallium arsenide (GaAs)
Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)

Red610 < λ < 7601.63 < ΔV < 2.03Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)
Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

Orange590 < λ < 6102.03 < ΔV < 2.10Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

Yellow570 < λ < 5902.10 < ΔV < 2.18Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

Green500 < λ < 5701.9[75] < ΔV < 4.0Traditional green:
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Aluminium gallium phosphide (AlGaP)
Pure green:
Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) / Gallium(III) nitride (GaN)

Blue450 < λ < 5002.48 < ΔV < 3.7Zinc selenide (ZnSe)
Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)
Silicon carbide (SiC) as substrate
Silicon (Si) as substrate—under development

Violet400 < λ < 4502.76 < ΔV < 4.0Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)

PurpleMultiple types2.48 < ΔV < 3.7Dual blue/red LEDs,
blue with red phosphor,
or white with purple plastic

Ultravioletλ < 4003 < ΔV < 4.1Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) (385-400 nm)

Diamond (235 nm)[76]
Boron nitride (215 nm)[77][78]
Aluminium nitride (AlN) (210 nm)[79]
Aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN)
Aluminium gallium indium nitride (AlGaInN)—down to 210 nm[80]


PinkMultiple typesΔV ~ 3.3[81]Blue with one or two phosphor layers,
yellow with red, orange or pink phosphor added afterwards,

white with pink plastic,
or white phosphors with pink pigment or dye over top.[82]


WhiteBroad spectrum2.8 < ΔV < 4.2Cool / Pure White: Blue/UV diode with yellow phosphor
Warm White: Blue diode with orange phosphor


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